Abu Simbel temples are two massive rock temples in Nubia, southern Egypt on the western bank of Lake Nasser about 290 km southwest of Aswan
The twin temples were originally carved out of the mountainside during the reign of Pharaoh Ramses’ II in the 13th century BC, as a lasting monument to himself and his queen Nefertari, to commemorate his alleged victory at the Battle of Kadesh, and to intimidate his Nubian neighbors. However, the complex was relocated in its entirety in the 1960s, on an artificial hill made from a domed structure, high above the Aswan High Dam reservoir.
The design of Ramses’ mortuary temple follows the standard designs of New Kingdom temple architecture. The main building, dedicated to the funerary cult, comprised two stone pylons (gateways, some 60 m wide), one after the other, each leading into a courtyard. Beyond the second courtyard, at the centre of the complex, was a covered 48-column hypostyle hall, surrounding the inner sanctuary.
Nefertari’s Temple of Hathor is located in Abu Simbel a small place in Egypt located close to the border of Sudan. Nefertari’s Temple of Hathor of Egypt is among one of the two temples built to honor female group in Egypt. The other temple is in Luxor that was build for honoring Queen Hatshepsut.
Nefertari’s Temple of Hathor consists of only one hypostyle hall and a rock cut sanctuary. The hall of the temple had images of Ramesses with wife Nefertari in battlefield. Just behind the hall, is located a small chamber that had images of Hathor cow framed in reeds. Just beyond this chamber is the sanctuary of Hathor’s Temple. The front wall of the sanctuary contain carved image of an emerging divine cow from the wall protecting Ramesses. The other images at the sanctuary show various scenes of Nefertari offering incense to Mut and Hathor.
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